Sebastopols have large, rounded heads, prominent
eyes, slightly arched necks, keel-less breasts and dual lobes – the fatty “lumps” that hang down below the
There are two types of Sebastopols; the Curly feather breasted type and the Smooth (regular)
feather breasted type. On both types, the plumage on the head and upper two-thirds of the neck is smooth and regular.
Orange bills, legs and feet are the standard for both types. White is the historical and most common colour variety found
in both types, but there are now Blue, Buff, Cream, Gray, Lavender, Buff Saddleback, Gray Saddleback and Splash varieties
found in both Curly and Smooth breasted types. In White colour varieties, the eyes are a bright blue while with the Buff colour,
the eyes are brown.
The Curly breasted type has its curled feathers commencing on the lower third
of the neck and continuing on down on the breast and underbody. The feathers on the back, wings and tail are soft and curl
downwards almost touching the ground in outstanding individuals (Holderread).
“Smooth breasted Sebastopols that have the proper feather pattern (as Standardized in Europe, where they
can and do show them) have long wide streamers coming off the back/shoulders and a waterfall of streamers in front of the
thighs. Wings are completely 100% normal. The wing flights and totally smooth breasts DQ them under the APA SOP. Young and/lightly
built birds can and have become airborn though usually there is enough bulk, especially as adults, to make that difficult
at best.” - Dave Kozakiewicz
The Sebastopol is classified as a Medium Goose by the American Poultry Association
Standards with weights as follows:
Old Gander: 14 lbs
Young Gander: 12 lbs.
Young Goose: 10 lbs.
Only Curly breasted White Sebastopols are currently recognized for show in
North America. Defects include straight flights, wing feathers protruding from the body and the absence of curled feathers
on the underbelly and back under the folded wings. (American Standard of Perfection, 1998)
In Germany, only Smooth breasted
White Sebastopols are recognized for show.
History of Sebastopol Geese
Sebastopol Geese have a long, but somewhat unknown and slightly disputed history.
They are descendents of the European Graylag and in body shape, closely resemble the Roman breed of geese.
It is believed that they were developed in South Eastern Europe along the Danube River
and the Black Sea. In fact, by the early 1800’s, Sebastopols could be found in all of the countries surrounding
the Black Sea where they were bred specifically for the soft curly feathers to be used in pillows, quilts and comforters;
however, they did not make it to Western Europe until the mid to late 1800’s.
The first Sebastopols in Western Europe are believed to be those which were
sent from the sea port of Sebastopol (now in the Ukraine) to Britain by Mr. John Harvey, esq., who was apparently yachting
on the Black Sea. At a port of call, Mr. Harvey saw some of Sebastopols and became quite taken by them. He arranged for some
to be shipped back home and he is therefore credited with bringing the first birds to Britain.
From the London Times (Mar. 28, 1878):
We lately announced the death of Mr John Harvey, of Ickwellbury, Bedfordshire, and of Finnenley Park, Yorkshire,
J.P. & D.L. and Chairman of the Quarter Sessions, and its High Sheriff, Beds, who died at 9 Cavendish Sqr, London, on
the 7th inst. after long illness.
The representative of one of the most ancient families of Gt Britain, and a large landed proprietor in several
counties, Mr Harvey may be cited as the model of an Engllish country gentleman. In public life as a Magistrate and chairman
of the Quarter Sessions, Mr Harvey's career was one of the highest usefulness and influence, and it will be difficult, if
not impossible, to replace him. Few men have succeeded in doing so much good to their suffereing fellow creatures, for it
is mainly due to Mr Harvey's exertions that the condition of county lunatic asylums was early brought to his notice, and after
years of untiring labour he had the satisfaction of seeing better building erected and a better mode of treating the insane
adopted in all of those counties in which he had influence.
For many years Mr Harvey had been well known as an enterprising Yachtsman, and was one of the oldest members of
the Cowes Royal Yacht Squadron. In his yacht "The Claymore" he visited most parts of the world,
Mr Harvey married Annie, daughter of Mr Henry Tennant, of Cadoxton Hall, Glamorganshire, and leaves two children,
- a son who is on the staff of the Governor General of Canada, and a daughter.
Mr John Harvey was a descendant of the same family of Harvey as of the Noble House of Bristol (Marquies), who
married his cousin, daughter of Audley Harvey, Esq of Cole Park, Malmsbury, Wilts. He was born Nov 14, 1815; married in 1848.
His son is named John Audley Harvey, 42nd Highlanders; daughter named Beatrice Susan Audley.
- Wells - Campbell Family Tree Genealogy Pages
It is believed that the birds arrived in Britain between 1857 and 1859. They
were known as Danubians due to the fact of that great numbers of them were raised along the Daube. (Ashton ,1999) William Bernhardt Tegetmeier, a
British naturalist, writer and journalist was the first to document the presence of “Danubians” in Britain and
gave the credit to Mr. Harvey, esq. for introducing them. They were also mentioned in Lewis Wright’s “The
Book of Poultry” (1st Edition) in 1872.
Another account mentions the belief that they originated in the southern areas
of Russia or Turkey and that they were introduced into Britain in 1859:
“Among some of the earlier imported birds a few had a small tuft on the top of the head, and we are informed
that many birds having that decoration are to be found in Southern Russia and Asia Minor.” – Brown (1906)
According to the Poultry Club of Great Britain, the history of the introduction
of Sebastopols into Great Britain is somewhat different:
“They were introduced into the U.K. by the diplomat Lord Dufferin in 1860, when he was sent to sort
out problems in countries surrounding the Black Sea.” - www.poultryclub.org
This is disputed with the fact that in February 1860, before Lord Dufferin
went to the Baltic area, some Sebastopol were presented to the Zoological
Society by Mr. Bartlett, a poultry fancier. (Domestic Waterfowl Club of Great Britain)
What is known and agreed upon is that in 1860, the British public was introduced
to the “Danubians” at the London Poultry Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace and they were subsequently written
up and described in the ‘Illustrated London News’. The birds were shown by Mr. Harvey D. Bayly under
the name of “Sebastopol”, in reference to the port from which they were exported. [‘Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen’ (1861), University of Mass.,
The name “Danubian” for the breed can be first referenced back
to Ireland in 1863, and both it and “Sebastopol” were used synonymously when referring to the breed until the
early 1900’s. The name “Danubian” was used in E. Brown’s 1906 The Poultry Book, and was thus was given
precedence over “Sebastopol”. However, in a 1912 revised edition of “The Book of Poultry” by
S. H. Lewer, they had once again became known as “Sebastopols”, probably due to the fact that The Poultry Club
(of Great Britain) had included them as such in their 1910 Breed Standards and have thereafter held the name. The Spanish and Italians refer to the breed as Danubio, the French and Belgians
frisée du Danube (Frizzled Goose of the Danube), and the Germans Lockengans (Curly goose) or Struppgans (Shaggy goose).
The Sebastopol made its way back to mainland Europe (France and Germany) from
Britain. In France, where they are known as l’Oie
frisée du Danube, they were first exhibited and received broad public admiration at l'exposition universelle de 1889 in Paris. This World’s Fair was held during the 100th
Anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille.
In Germany, their history goes back to the mid to late 1860’s with the
recognized Standards set prior to the formation of the German Goose Association in 1907. (SV Deutscher Gänsezüchter von
The history of the Sebastopol in North America is even more obscure. It is
believed that they first arrived here in the late 1800’s and then supposedly they were then bred with Embden geese to
increase their size (Weir, Harrison, Johnson, W.G., Brown G.O.
Depending upon sources, the American Poultry Association either recognized
the breed in 1938 (Malone, et. al., 1998) or 1939 (Ekarius 2007).
Sebastopols are said to be quite calm with exceptional personalities. When handled carefully, they have a quiet and pleasant nature (Holderread,
Even though they look like delicate balls of fluff, Sebastopols are actually
quite hardy. However, care must be taken to provide good shelter from the wet, wind, and extremes of temperature as their
feathers are loose and do not lay flat thus do not shed water or provide as much warmth as those of other breeds. Winds can easily fluff up their feathers thus body heat is quickly
lost. In very cold weather they might like to spend more time in shelter than other breeds, but they are known to enjoy their
baths, even in the cold of winter.
“Whenever a domestic animal is selected for an unusual characteristic, great care must be taken to insure
that vigor and fertility of breeding stock is not overlooked.” (ALBC)
As with most poultry for breeding purposes, the primary selection should be
for healthy, robust individuals showing the proper size for the breed. When selecting Sebastopols, one should look for
birds with well-curled breast feathers, flexible flight feathers, and back and tail plumes that are long, broad and spiraled.
Avoid selecting breeding stock with crooked toes and slipped wings (Holderread, 1981).
It seems that even though ganders can be mated with one to four geese, low
fertility is often experienced with this breed. Females normally produce 25-35 eggs annually.
“Fertility seems to be a problem with most Sebastopols, along with lower than normal egg production. Fertility
is adequate early in the season (and they do seem to come into production earlier than most breeds) but quickly drops off.
Oftentimes we will have no fertile eggs the last three weeks of production in the spring.” (J. Metzer)
Clipping the long plumes of the back and tail and the feathers around the
vent is sometimes helpful (Holderread, 1981).
The mutation causing the curly feathers is sometimes referred to as the “Sebastopol
Gene”. Birds that have a “double dosage” of this gene are Curly breasted whereas those that are Smooth
breasted carry only one “dose” of the Sebastopol gene. Only Curly breasted breed 100% true and when breeding two
Smooth breasted individuals together, three sorts of offspring are possible: Curly breasted, Smooth Breasted, and totally
smooth. (C. & M. Ashton)
“You will see so called smooth breasted birds being offered as the best breeding tool ever that have no
or very little mutated feather. This is not what a smooth breasted should be and those offering such birds are either misleading
the novice or ignorant. Dave Holderread has done more with them than anyone and said that at least in theory it is possible
to breed smooth BIRDS” - Dave Kozakiewicz
Natural incubation lasts for a period of 30 days usually with one clutch a
year of about 10 - 15 eggs. Young birds may start with
a few gray feathers but gradually lose them until they are pure white at about 20 weeks, after their final set of feathers